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银川8月举办阳光体育大会面向全国征集会徽和口号

2019-09-21 05:14 来源:新浪中医

  银川8月举办阳光体育大会面向全国征集会徽和口号

  百度名誉主席:徐匡迪(十届全国政协副主席、中国工程院原院长、中国工程院主席团名誉主席)王梦奎(国务院发展研究中心原主任)主席:潘云鹤(中国工程院原常务副院长)副主席:杨卫(国家自然科学基金委员会主任、中国科学院院士)王国平(原中共浙江省委常委、杭州市委书记、杭州国际城市学研究中心顾问)单霁翔(故宫博物院院长)章新胜(教育部原副部长、世界自然保护联盟理事会主席、中国教育国际交流协会会长、联合国教科文组织亚太地区世界遗产培训与研究中心管委会主席)钟秉林(中国教育学会会长、北京师范大学原校长、教授)钱永刚(中国人民解放军某部高级工程师、上海交通大学兼职教授、钱学森之子)以公共交通车站为中心,构建连续的步行系统是中国TOD社区最基本的人性化设计要求。

王国平同时指出,城市学智库建设是一项开创性的工作,必须树立“不谋万世者,不足谋一时;不谋全局者,不足谋一域”理念,秉持“敢为人先、克难攻坚、和衷共济、决战决胜”精神,着力推进城市学智库建设的特色化、系统化、专业化、模块化和规范化,为智库机构改革创新提供“杭州解法”。(汪渝阿里木)

  对于存在重大消防安全隐患的商场市场,在依法处理的基础上,要提请属地政府和有关部门纳入升级改造或疏解外迁计划;对于已经列入疏解计划的专业性区域市场,要用足用好“查、改、关、封、拘、罚”等执法手段,该关停的关停、该查封的查封、该移送函告有关职能部门的移送函告,以强力执法推进疏解工作。从思想上教育广大官兵将勤俭节约落实到自觉行动中,牢固树立勤俭节约的思想,人人以勤俭节约为荣,以铺张浪费为耻,从我做起,做到“三个一”,即:节约一度电,做到随手关灯,人走电器关;节约一滴水,水笼头用后及时关闭;节约一张纸,复印纸、公文纸统一保管,按需领用,提倡双面打印或复印,节约使用,确保了厉行节约活动的有效开展。

  老兵叮嘱留队战友要牢记神圣职责,发扬部队光荣传统,继续为祖国和人民作贡献,领导叮嘱退伍老兵要发扬退伍不退色的军人本色,在今后的人生征途中取得更大更好的成绩。一、划界模式与城市空间的耦合机制(一)生态景观资源丰富,自然环境敏感、脆弱城市的行政边界作为一个空间概念,其划界的不同自然会导致相应的城市空间演变千差万别。

河道对城市居民的生活用水有着直接影响作用,生活用水直接关系到居民的生存问题,然而随着经济建设的快速发展,城市工业发展呈急速上升的趋势,工业化生产的发展对河道的水资源也造成了一定的污染影响,同时人们生活水平的不断提高,一些垃圾随处丢弃也对河道水资源造成了污染。

  由于利润分配问题可能得到更为有效的解决方式,在医院集团内部,转诊分流的阻力也较集团外小得多,节省的交易费用将通过提高服务使用率、得到更为合适的服务等使患者享受到集团化的收益。

  消防文职人员都来自社会各个层面,难免会有不良的习气,《长兴县消防大队文职人员日常管理规定》的出台主要目的是充分调动文职人员的工作积极性,实行消防文职人员量化管理向精细化管理提升,逐月按照工作成效、考评成绩、平时工作表现等方面进行考评,将考评结果与文职人员奖金挂钩,让其端正自身工作态度,确保自身具有严明的工作作风和具备良好的素养。随着城市建设的规模不断扩大,在生态环境方面出现的问题也日益明显起来,水环境的优劣直接关系到城市居民生活用水的质量,城市河道水环境也成为人们所关注的焦点问题之一。

  截至2018年2月,基地已招聘六批博士后进站开展研究工作。

  为社区送去“防火经”9日下午,景德镇昌江消防大队大队长甘清华带队走进前街社区,开展消防宣传和消除火灾隐患活动,并为居民特别是独居老人面对面传授消防常识和火灾自救方法。随后吴韶龙参谋长作了重要指示,他要求在新兵第二阶段训练中,新训干部和带兵班长要切实注重带兵方式方法,以情带兵、以行带兵、文明带兵,做到严有度、教有情、爱护不放纵、严格不粗暴;要加强新兵思想政治教育,带兵干部和班长要善于见微知著,随时摸准摸透新兵思想动态,要广泛开展交谈心活动,搞好心理疏导;切实做好新兵生活保障,根据不同地域和不同饮食习惯,合理调配好饮食,确保新战士以良好的身体状况投入到第二阶段的学习训练中,确保2016年度新兵训练工作圆满完成。

  因此,应建设人文型西安智慧城市,真正以人为出发点和立足之本。

  澳门威尼斯人网站据了解,这也是沙雅县各乡镇场成立的首支专职消防队。

  (3)运营阶段。消防文职人员都来自社会各个层面,难免会有不良的习气,《长兴县消防大队文职人员日常管理规定》的出台主要目的是充分调动文职人员的工作积极性,实行消防文职人员量化管理向精细化管理提升,逐月按照工作成效、考评成绩、平时工作表现等方面进行考评,将考评结果与文职人员奖金挂钩,让其端正自身工作态度,确保自身具有严明的工作作风和具备良好的素养。

  澳门威尼斯人网站 澳门威尼斯人网站 澳门威尼斯人注册

  银川8月举办阳光体育大会面向全国征集会徽和口号

 
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China Takes a Lead in Supporting UN Peacekeeping

He Yin 2019-09-21 14:34:03   
The past four decades have witnessed China’s increasingly active participation in the United Nations (UN) peacekeeping. While having been widely welcome by the UN and beyond, China’s strong support for the UN peacekeeping regime has also attracted skepticism. Some international analysts downplay the significance of China’s contribution to UN peacekeeping and claim that China’s active participation in UN peacekeeping is largely driven by a long list of pragmatic needs or interests ranging from access to natural resources to reshaping the international order. Why is China enthusiastic about peacekeeping? Will China revise the peacekeeping regime or the international order? Questions like these deserve attention.
 
China’s support for UN peacekeeping: facts and figures
 
Currently, China has a total of 2534 military and police peacekeeper in 7 out of the 14 ongoing UN peacekeeping operations (PKOs), ranking the 11th in all the 122 contributors of peacekeepers and is the largest contributor of peacekeepers among the permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC). However, back in 1990s and early 2000s, China had the lowest number of peacekeepers among the UNSC permanent members. Since its first dispatch of five military observers to the United Nations' Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) in 1990, China has contributed a total of about 40,000 peacekeepers to 24 UN-commanded PKOs and special political missions located in Africa, Middle East, Southern Europe, Southeastern Asia and Latin America.
 
Chinais also the second largest source of peacekeeping budget, supplying 15.22 percent of about US$7 billion in 2019, a sharp increase from 10.28% percent in 2018. China’s assessment rate in contribution to peacekeeping is larger than those of other three UNSC permanent members, France, United Kingdom and Russia combined. It is worth noting that back in 2000, China’s assessment rate was merely about two percent. Although its assessment rate has increased at a scale larger than any other Member States over the past two decades, China can always pay its due without any delay, while some other Member States are often reluctant to pay their due in time. In January 2019, in a letter to all the 193 Member States, UN Secretary-General António Guterres complained that the arrears of peacekeeping budget have amounted to US$2 billions and those of United States alone are US$780 millions.
 
Besides, China has been keen in supporting UN peacekeeping through other multilateral and bilateral initiatives. Most notably, on 28 September 2015, in his statement at the General Debate of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced six important commitments to support the improvement and strengthening of UN peacekeeping, including to set up a permanent peacekeeping police squad and building a peacekeeping standby force of 8000 troops, to train 2000 peacekeepers from other countries, and to establish a 10-year, US$1 billion China-UN Peace and Development Fund. Although during the 2015 UN Summit and afterwards, some other Member States have also made similar promises to support the UN peacekeeping, so far none of them have given support as significant as that of China.
 
China’s political support for UN peacekeeping has also increased significantly. The UN is first and foremost an international political institution. Its strength mainly comes from all the Member States’ political support, especially that of the key Member States. Having a veto right in the UNSC, China is undoubtedly a key Member State. Besides, China is the second largest economy in the world. Thus, it plays an indispensable role in international peace and security affairs. That said, China’s active support for UN peacekeeping is of great political significance for the UN, especially when some other key Member States are shying away from their obligations in the UN peacekeeping regime. President Xi’s 2015 announcement of six important commitments, along with China’s active contribution of peacekeepers and peacekeeping budget, shows that China is now taking a lead in giving political support for UN peacekeeping.
 
Increasing contribution of peacekeepers can mean increasing possibilities of fatalities and injuries. On 1 June 2016, terrorists attacked the barracks of the Chinese peacekeeping security unit located in Gao, Mali with a vehicle bomb, leading to the death of one Chinese peacekeeper and four injuries. A few weeks later, on 10 July, another two Chinese peacekeepers were killed and five more injured in a mortar exchange between the government forces and the rebel army in Juba, South Sudan. Although both accidents have aroused heated discussion among the Chinese public on security of peacekeepers, Beijing has not shown any signs of withdrawing troops from Mali or South Sudan or intention to reduce its contribution of peacekeeping personnel. A few months later, China deployed a 140-person multifunctional helicopters unit to the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur.
 
Why does China support peacekeeping?
 
What many are most interested is why China has adopted a supportive policy on UN peacekeeping. Much of the existing literature on this issue has an obvious feature: as the writers have focused on policy analysis or review, their analyses have often failed to capture the most important reasons behind China’s active support for UN peacekeeping. Besides, many of the seemingly solid points are easy to falsify. For example, some point to South Sudan and argue that China’s participation in UN peacekeeping is driven by its increasing need for natural resources, such as oil. However, the deployment of substantial numbers of peacekeeping troops to places like Darfur, Lebanon and Haiti—which lack significant stocks of natural resources—surely limits the strength of this argument. Professor Christoph Zürcherof Ottawa University thinks it difficult to establish a direct link between China’s economic interests and its peacekeeping activities.
 
Some also believe that China deploys most of its peacekeepers to Africa because of economic and security interests in the continent. It is true that more than 80 percent of Chinese peacekeepers are deployed to Africa. But it is also a fact that Africa hosts most PKOs, especially the large multi-dimensional ones; more than 85 percent of all peacekeepers are based in Africa. To be a major contributor of peacekeepers, China has to send most of its peacekeepers to Africa. The living conditions and safety and security environment for peacekeepers are treacherous in the African missions, which is one of the main reasons that many Northern states are particularly reluctant to send their peacekeeper to Africa. The number of Chinese peacekeepers deployed to Africa is larger than that of all 32 industrialized states combined.
 
One can not deny that national interests, including the immediate ones, can affect a state’s policy on international affairs. However, one will also find it hard to believe that a realism-oriented policy analysis can show the full picture of China as an active peacekeeper, especially given China’s rise over the past four decades. Moreover, a power politics-oriented policy analysis often ignores the severe security challenges in PKO host states and responsibilities of the international community to help; instead, it may even be full of misunderstanding and misinformation, and often suggests the United States and its allies to discourage China from contributing to UN peacekeeping.
 
As the second largest economy as well as a key UN Member State, China’s policy on UN peacekeeping is and definitely should be much more sophisticated than many believe. In other words, China’s pro-peacekeeping policy accords with its peaceful diplomacy. There are three core reasons behind China’s strong support for UN peacekeeping: strengthening the UN and multilateralism, being a responsible country and sharing common concerns of maintaining international peace and security.
 
Strengthening the UN and multilateralism
 
The UN is the largest and most universal, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization in the world. A strong UN is in the interest of China, a key Member State. Moreover, the UN is the best venue to practice multilateralism, which China endorses and advocates internationally. China has many reasons to defend the authority of the UN and multilateralism against unilateralism now and then practiced by some Western powers.
 
Peacekeeping is a conflict management tool created by the UN according to the spirit of the UN Charter. Since the first PKO—UNTSO was established in 1948, peacekeeping has proved to be an indispensible approach for the UN to maintain international peace and security. As a matter of fact, it has proved to be the most remarkable part of the UN’s work. China’s active participation in UN peacekeeping affairs can strengthen its status in the UN as well as authority of this world organization and multilateralism.
 
A responsible country
 
China’s continuous success in economic and social development over the past four decades has attracted admiration but also unease from the outside world, as reflected in the “China Threat” debate. On the one hand, the international community expects a rising China to shoulder more responsibilities and do more for international peace and security. On the other hand, a rising China has caused fear among some people that China will pursue a hegemonic path and threaten international peace and security, repeating the story that other powers experienced in history.
 
One of the urgent diplomatic tasks for China is to assure the world of its goodwill and strategic intention to become a peace-loving responsible power. To this end, China needs to integrate further into the international community and make more contributions to international peace and security. Peacekeeping is the most suitable for such an endeavor. Wearing blue helmets, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Chinese police, whose international visibility has long been low, can expose themselves through high-profile peacekeeping activities. Chinese peacekeepers’ professionalism and integrity, among other core values and competencies, have long been recognized by the UN and beyond. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres and his colleagues have on many occasions said highly of Chinese peacekeepers. A report published by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute observes that Chinese peacekeepers are consistently rated among the most professional, well-trained, effective and disciplined in UN peacekeeping operations.
 
Sharing common concerns for international peace and security
 
China’s peaceful rise needs a peaceful international environment, which is a major reason that it promotes peaceful diplomacy and has become more and more active in supporting the peace and security pillar of the UN. Unlike the time when China was closed to the outside world, Chinese interests today are linked to events abroad. As the largest exporter of manufactured goods as well as the largest importer of raw materials, China’s prosperity depends heavily on overseas market. Besides, there are more and more Chinese nationals and enterprises doing business abroad, including in places trapped in or emerging from conflicts. China can feel the impact of conflicts and instability even in a remote corner of the world. In 2011, Libya fell into chaos overnight due to internal violence and international intervention. China woke up to find that it had to try all means to mobilize resources to evacuate more than 50000 Chinese nationals out of Libya. Moreover, Chinese enterprises have lost commercial contracts worth of billions of US dollars signed with the Gaddafi government.
 
Peaceful development contributes to the enhancement of national strength and leads to China becoming more and more active in participating in global affairs, including UN peacekeeping. That is, China is not only more and more concerned about international peace and security, but also has more and more capabilities to address global challenges. In other words, China is willing to share the dividends of its peaceful development with the rest of the world and take a lead to contribute to “community of shared future for mankind”, an initiative raised by President Xi.
 
Will China revise the peacekeeping regime?
 
As China keeps rising, some are worried that it will use its growing influence to reshape the international order. G John Ikenberry, Professor at Princeton University, holds that China can be allowed to overtake the United States in material power, but not the Western order. He suggests the United States and its Western allies to defend the liberal rules and institutions of the international system. Will China overthrow the international order? An analysis to China’s influence on the UN peacekeeping regime can help answer this question.
 
The UN peacekeeping regime comprises of rules and norms generated from the practice of human civilizations. It largely reflects consensus of the international community, although at different historical times certain states or civilizations may have a bigger say. For the past seven decades the Western civilization and its liberal concepts have played a dominant role in shaping the UN peacekeeping regime. The main reason that some are worried about China’s increasingly active role in UN peacekeeping affairs is that they believe international order is and should always be a liberal order dictated by the West. They tend to see the world with a dichotomy between the West and “the rest”. To them, the West represents liberty, democracy and progress while “the rest” are illiberal, undemocratic and backward; therefore, “the rest”, including China, should be prevented from bringing any changes to the UN peacekeeping regime.
 
The UN peacekeeping regime is dynamic; it keeps evolving as the international configuration and security situations change over times. For example, peacekeeping operations have evolved remarkably over the past seven decades: most notably from traditional peacekeeping of monitoring ceasefire agreements to multi-dimensional peacekeeping marked by peacebuilding in post-conflict states as the main mandate. Research shows that a peace norm called “liberal peace” has prevailed in peacebuilding discourse and practice since the end of the Cold War. Advocates of liberal peace believe that the most important task of peacebuilding in a post-conflict state is to establish democratic political institutions as well as neoliberal economic institutions.
 
Liberal peacebuilding has two major limitations. One is that peacebuilding is dominated by a narrow statebuilding agenda while many other urgent tasks including economic and social development are largely neglected. Another limitation of liberal peacebuilding is that it lacks inclusiveness. Any institutions or activities which are regarded as non-liberal or non-democratic will be rejected or excluded in order to transform the post-conflict state into a Western-style liberal democracy. However, the “one size fits all” peace approach has failed to build lasting peace in many post-conflict states. Some Western academics insist that the peace built by liberal peace is a “virtual peace”.
 
The essence of the UN system is multilateralism and diversity. Every Member State, including China, has both obligations and rights to help improve the peacekeeping regime so that it can effectively cope with challenges and maintain international peace and security. China’s peaceful rise tells a peace story different from that of the West and generates experience that can be learned internationally. As China takes increasingly active part in reforming and developing the global governance system, the reform of the UN peacekeeping regime will greatly benefit from Chinese resources and wisdom. In other words, as an active peacekeeper, China will not only contribute peacekeeping personnel and budget, but also “Chinese approaches” to peacekeeping.
 
In recent years, the peacekeeping regime has encountered unprecedented challenges. The UN has repeatedly reminded its Member States that a number of peace operations today are deployed in an environment where there is little or no peace to keep, and the strain on operational capabilities and support system is showing. Against such a background, many Western states’ decreasing enthusiasm for peacekeeping, evidenced by their inadequate presence of peacekeepers on the ground, has weakened both the perceived legitimacy and the effectiveness of UN peace missions. As the Western-dominated liberal approaches alone have proved unable to solve the increasingly complicated problems in peacekeeping and peacebuilding, other non-Western states should be encouraged to make normative contribution to the peacekeeping regime.China’s active contribution to UN peacekeeping is not an attempt to revise the peacekeeping regime, but to help strengthen and sustain it.
 
Conclusion
 
China may sometimes find itself trapped in a dilemma: if it keeps a low profile and shy away from international affairs, some may accuse it of free ridingand not shouldering global responsibilities; if it actively participates in international affairs, some may think that it is “assertive” and intends to reshape the international order. Nevertheless, as is shown in its strong support for UN peacekeeping, China is determined to shoulder the responsibilities as a key member of the international community of nation-states. Against the background of the United States’ retreating from the international institutions, China’s increasingly active role in the UN system and other international institutions will help strengthen and sustain the international order.
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